Volume 4, Number 1, May 2002

Published six times a year by The Paschal Group, Inc.
Publisher: Robert Paschal
Editor: Jeanne Paschal
Also see — The Newsletter for Visual Artists

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With Michael Cacy
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A Workshop High in The Alps

This spring I was asked to conduct a private workshop in Germany, co-teaching with my old friend, St. Louis-based illustrator Bill Vann. Bill is best known for his superb sports-oriented art and, together, we have taught many a workshop in faraway lands. This time we traveled to Garmisch-Partenkirchen in the German Alps near the Austrian border. As you might imagine, being a visually inspired individual yourself, the setting was astoundingly beautiful--nestled amongst snowy alpine crags and bathed daily by crisp rays of the March sun.

Our objective was to present a workshop focusing on illustration techniques (using primarily traditional media) to a group of graphics professionals connected with a center devoted to international security. The group proved to be a sophisticated and talented array of designers and illustrators from various parts of the globe. What follows is a peek inside that workshop and a look at one of the techniques explored.

The Gouache Wash Rubout Technique

This is a subtractive technique used frequently by illustrators as an intermediate stage in an illustration project, but can sometimes yield fresh, interesting results on its own.

As a ground (or working surface) I gessoed a piece of Crescent 300 cold press illustration board using a broad brush and allowed the gesso to dry thoroughly. (Note: Don't worry if your board warps a little when dry. An "X" painted in gesso from corner to corner on the back of your illustration board will usually correct this problem by drawing the illustration board flat again.) Your drawing should lean more to "heavy handed" than toward "too light" because you will need to be able to see your drawing though the wash that follows. I drew my image using a soft graphite pencil and then lightly fogged on a coat of workable fixative to keep the drawing from smearing. To begin the wash of colors, I first wet the entire surface with water using a clean, broad brush. If you see the water bead up or resist, it may be reacting to the chemical nature of the spray fixative. This can be resolved by scrubbing the surface with the brush until the beading subsides. Now, to the wet surface, add wet washes of gouache colors. I started with a blue violet and then blended in ochre and a rusty sienna. Gouache is an opaque watercolor medium, which is intended for use in an opaque fashion. However, here we are using gouache more like we would think of using traditional watercolors--thin, wet washes transparent enough when dry to see the pencil drawing underneath. Once dry, you can begin "picking out" the extreme lights, as I have done in the eyes.

The dried gouache is "picked out" or "rubbed out" using a damp brush, cotton swab, or rag. Here, I am using a brush dampened with water to lift off paint in the lit areas of an ear. Once the bristles have picked up paint, they are cleaned by wiping the brush on a paper towel to draw out the pigment. Learning how wet or how dry your brush, swab, or rag should be to achieve the desired results is essential and, while not difficult, may take a little practice.

Refer back to your reference often, being careful to remove paint only from the lit areas. Do not remove paint from areas in shadow. With your brush only slightly damp, you can blend paint gently off the surface, as opposed to lifting it off entirely, as shown in the lower cheek. (Notice the streaks beginning to become evident from the thickly applied gesso ground. If you don't desire such streaks, apply your initial gesso ground more smoothly.)

An attendee in a handsome Bavarian jacket looks on as the demo painting progresses.

At this stage, the rubout process is already responsible for a believable sculpted look to the face, and some incidental brushwork (applying new gouache colors over the top) may begin. Here, I am applying the darks for nostrils and brows. Then, to further resolve the color work, additional new colors may be glazed over the top with the airbrush. Artool Freehand Airbrush Templates come in handy at this stage of the game. Be aware that, if more rubbing out is to be done along the way, gouache applied with the airbrush lifts off about twice as easily as gouache applied with a brush, as in our previous steps. As an extra measure of control, I often use an eraser as opposed to a damp brush to extract paint that has been applied with the airbrush.

Sticky notes protect eyelids on the art and unwanted openings in the circle template as pupils and irises in the eyes are airbrushed into place.

Highlights on the eyes have been added with opaque white, and the entire surface has been sealed with varnish. I prefer Krylon Crystal Clear acrylic coating #1303. This is a gloss varnish that will deepen contrast slightly and bring your colors to life. Once varnished, colors may become evident that you forgot were there!

Many thanks to Walter for the step-by-step photography and "hello" to all my artist pals in Germany.

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Airbrush Accents For Craft Projects

By Janean S. Thompson

Many airbrush artists create works that are so sharp in detail, so lifelike as to mimic photography. The flip side of this coin is the cloudlike softness that can be created with airbrush. This look is nearly impossible to achieve with any other art media. That feather-edged look is treasured by airbrush enthusiasts and collectors and envied by fellow artists. While the methods by which airbrush art is created can encompass all types of detail, from fine lines to wispy, mere suggestions of color, it is the quality of line that makes it appealing to many segments of the art world.

Craft projects can be richly enhanced by even a slight application of airbrush color. Some prominent examples include a possible metallic overlay atop a finished wooden or plaster decorative piece, shadow detail on tole painting works, paper casts or other dimensional art/craft projects. These projects are enhanced by the softness of the color overlay, not "ruled" by that application. The airbrush work is an embellishment of the original project rather than the project itself. For this reason, these types of airbrush applications offer a comfortable introduction to the field.

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Project: Paper collage with three-dimensional texture and airbrush shadow detail or metallic accents.

Materials needed might include:

  • Colored corrugated papers, handmade papers, leather scraps, artists' papers in rich tones, twine, leather cording, metal found objects, brass medallions, wire, wood scrap, stones, etc. Nearly anything goes here.
  • Airbrush outfitted with narrow broadcast nozzle (Iwata HP-SA or HP-SB do very well.)
  • Shadow tones or metallic pigments.

Create a pleasing design with the materials you choose to group. For this exercise, it is suggested that you incorporate a good deal of dimension. Attach all elements to a piece of mat board or other backing with adhesive and allow to dry. (Adhesive choices might include WeldBond or other adhesive for bonding dissimilar materials.) When dry, you might want to paint the entire surface for an even background color or leave the colors and textures of the items clearly visible. Either way you might want to add light, wispy metallic highlights with the airbrush over the painted or natural surface. Or another option is to be adventurous by accelerating the dimensional qualities. To do this, create a strong light source from the left or right of the collage and study shadow locations in contrast to the object that is casting the shadow. Apply soft, shadow tones along the underside of the dimensional objects. These dimensional elements should appear where shadows would naturally appear in order to create the look you desire. Misplaced shadows or shadows from conflicting light sources will confuse the viewer and not give the results you want.

Now that you have completed the actual art piece, think about how you will display it. When presenting such a collage, you might want to add a bit more dimension by elevating the artwork above a background surface. If you do this, you can shade the background with your airbrush to add the implication of more height.

While this sounds like a lot of close, confining work, the results can be breathtaking. By adding simple elements of shadow and/or highlight, you make an otherwise flat work seem to float. It appears to have more substance, more detail and more texture than it might if it were displayed without any embellishment.

Experiment with ways to use shadow detailing on other craft projects. For depth, you can apply dark metallic copper airbrush pigment onto rust or dark brown for the luster of aged, weathered copper. Or add a teal green for a verde antique finish. Adding either of these to a picture frame can transform a basic looking frame (perhaps recycled) to an eye-popping, original item. Have fun and be creative!

“Where Do I Begin?”--
A Quick Guide to Painting Three-Dimensional Subjects in Layers

By Glenn Hetrick
(Click on any image for a larger view.)

So you have a super cool foam latex prop or mask and it is in dire need of a good paint job. Where do the pros start to get those awesome-looking finished pieces? In what order do they paint to get those effects with their airbrush?

Even a low-quality mask can be made to look fantastic if painted properly. The paint job is the finishing touch that defines the look of prosthetic make-ups, masks, props, aliens and monsters. In the professional FX industry, sculptures are often finished under massive time crunches, background masks have to be made by “kit bashing” other make-ups into a new character, and prosthetic make-up pieces have to be pumped out in impossible quantities on a schedule. But they always (well, almost always) look great on film. So how do they do it? What is the trick?

Painting together with good seaming (the blending of pieces and hiding of seams through the use of burning and patching with various materials--an art form in and of itself and far too involved to discuss here) are the secrets to an amazing finished piece. The most important skill in producing high-quality paint jobs is that of knowing your layer order. Often, model kit painters tend to base out with very dark colors, often black, in order to provide deep, dark low points that can be easily defined with dry brushing. The major shortcoming of doing this is that you have a dark underpaint effect that consequently “muddies” the whole piece and keeps all of the subsequent colors from being “true.”

This fact is exponentially important when painting more porous subjects such as foam latex and Polyform (the materials used to produce most prosthetic make-ups, pro masks and props). These materials act like a sponge and soak in the colors.

Because of that fact, you need to remember that once you lay on dark colors, it is very difficult to lighten the area up again. This can become a veritable nightmare. For simplicity’s sake, I am going to give brief examples of three different paint jobs. By no means do I intend to suggest that this is the “right” way to paint. There are infinite styles and circumstances. These are just some examples to get you started and to help you find your favorite techniques. I strongly suggest that if you want to really learn from this article that you run out and buy yourself a decent Halloween mask. Paint jobs on them are almost always poor because of the assembly line nature of such mass-produced fare. However, many of them have really good sculptural form and decent detail. Look for a mask/character that you really like (so that it will hold your interest and get your creative juices flowing). Also, make sure that it has some good texture and detail--it is much harder to paint a flat, featureless, poorly sculpted piece. Spend the extra couple of bucks to get something you like and you will be happier with the finished result of your paint job.

Now, the Halloween-type mask that you are going to be working on will be made of latex, and therefore not as porous as a foam piece, but it will be fine for practice. There are also foam latex masks out there for sale, and if you want to, feel free to track one of them down.

Let’s get started! The first paint job that we will tackle will start with a light base color. So decide what the base flesh color of the subject will be. Cover the entire piece with this color (including all details and undercuts). I most often use rubber cement paint (rubber cement tinted with oil colors and then thinned out with Naphtha) due to its “bite” (the ability of the paint medium to bond and adhere to the surface of the subject). You must thin the base coat down a lot to ensure that it gets a good grip on the latex. Just apply this base coat with a cheap 1-1/2 inch chip brush (from Home Depot). Allow the base to dry, speeding it up with a hair dryer if you are impatient like me.

This next step defines the major difference between two of the three paint jobs. You can now (after making sure the base coat is very dry) apply a “wash” to define all of the deep spots. To do this properly, you will probably have to pick the piece up and “wash” it from different angles to get in all of the detail and undercuts. The “wash” color could be a much darker version of your base color and must be extremely thinned out (almost tea-like) to work. Take up a brush load of the “wash” using a clean chip brush and apply it to the piece allowing it to fill in the cracks and details. While it dries, carefully blot the paint from all the high spots with a tissue, leaving the color only in the deep areas. You may have to let the first coat dry and do two or three “washes” to obtain the desired result. You can also follow this up with a lighter version of the "wash” that allows you to color some of the other areas between high points and low points.

Once you are finished and the wash has dried, we are ready to move on. If you have any areas that are too dark, now is the time to go back in with your base coat and correct them. Remember throughout the paint job that you do not want to paint any of the areas solid, i.e., you should blot or “mottle” the areas with color. If you are going back in with base color to lighten an area, this is the perfect time to start blotting. When you are happy with the results, grab your Iwata HP-C and get ready for fun!

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We are going to now do some overall “mottling.” This is breaking up the piece and giving it that real flesh look by using a lot of very small blots or noodles of color in layers. When done properly, this is what makes the finished piece appear to have dimension. The mutant baby in the photo example is a very flat resin casting of the sculpture. Its entire “dimension” was added in paint. If you decided not to do a wash technique, then just go right on to this next step after your base coat is dry.

Start by mixing up a very thinned-out warm color, let’s say red for a flesh-looking paint job, and load your airbrush. Put on a good jazz CD or whatever relaxes you. Get in very close and using a very small amount of air pressure, lightly begin to make ribbon-like patterns (like ribbon candy from a top view if that helps) and figure eights in a tight pattern. Cover the entire surface of the piece like this, leaving some spaces almost empty and other spaces riddled with patterns. The color should be a rather weak, watered down version of red. We are not going for stark contrast here. Once in a while, pull back from the piece and make broader patterns too. This may look odd at first, but just stick with it. When you are happy with the amount of red on the piece, flush your airbrush with Naphtha and load your next color.

It is extremely helpful to step back from your work often to get an idea of how everything is reading. You may want to concentrate the patterns in shaded areas, like the temple for instance, and leave more space on areas like the top of the head. Step back and assess the overall look often.

Now repeat this whole procedure with your next color, let’s say a really thinned-out blue. When using a blue on a paint job like this example, I go very light and not nearly as much as the red. Just some spots to cool it down and give it more life-like colors. If it starts to look like an American flag, you are using too much blue and the paint is probably way too concentrated, so thin it down. I always start each new layer on the BACK of the piece to see if the paint is thin enough. It is much easier to hide a bad pattern in the back as a bruise or something if you need to rethink your color.

Over this layer, let’s reload and go in heavier using the same technique but with a red-brown. Then after that go in lightly with a brown. As you add each layer you should see this mottled pattern emerging, providing a sense of depth. Don’t forget to leave some areas with very little paint as well as tiny areas between the mottling. This provides the illusion of another layer on top of a very light color that really pops.

If you get to a point were you are really unhappy and the colors are too muddy, do not push it. This is a very tricky technique to learn and you very well might not nail it the first couple of times. Just base the whole piece out again and start over. It may take a few layers of base coat to clean the slate; that is fine--just don’t be too heavy-handed or you will fill in the details with paint. Start again and concentrate on using thinner paint and much smaller lines. I often use a MICRON for the mottling and noodling. It works great and makes it easier to control those nice small, tight lines.

Now step back and look at the whole piece. Is it too warm or too cool? Did you want it to lean a little more towards a certain overall color? This is where I often mist the whole piece with very thinned color to tie it all together and cool down hot colors or warm up cool colors.

Lastly, I go in with a darker and more concentrated brown and add age spots all over of different shapes and sizes. It is harder than it sounds, and the trick here is to avoid patterns of dots. They have to appear natural and very random. Note: It is a big pain to fix spots that are in the wrong place or too big due to the dark concentrated color, so take your time! You can also add some spots of a lighter color or even add tiny spots of lighter tones to larger, darker spots.

The third variation I promised you is very similar to the techniques described above. The only difference is in the beginning stages. Instead of applying a base coat first, we start with a wash. After it is dry, take a chip brush and, using the dry brushing technique, color the rest of the piece, leaving a nicely contrasted paint scheme. You can then proceed with the mottling process. This alternate step creates a big difference in the look of the finished paint job.

The pictures shown here are of several heads and make-ups that I painted for “Buffy the Vampire Slayer” and “Angel.” All of the various techniques described here were used to paint these pieces. Add your own variations. I often make my patterns bigger and wider and then go in and just blot the piece with my next color by airbrushing spots of color all over it to break it up and then continue mottling from there. You must also play with colors a lot. I am still constantly finding new tricks of combining colors for new results. Example: Instead of painting an area just black, paint it deep purple first and then add concentrated black mottling to it. From a distance it reads as black, but up close you can see the intricacies of the paint job and the dimension.

Most importantly, remember to have fun! You can always start over. The more you paint, the easier it becomes. Most problems that I see are due to the rushing of a stage of a particular paint job, not stepping away and looking at the overall piece or an airbrush being less than perfectly clean and thus causing splatter and/or uncontrolled pressure variations.

Many thanks to John Vulich, Rich Mayberry, Gary Yee and Brian Blair as well as all of my associates at Optic Nerve Studios—Greg Solomon, Johnny Flanagan, Lancel Reyes, Jeff Deist, Steve Fink, Kari Murillo, John Wheaton, Reyna Rhone, and Almost Human FX-- for all of their sage advice. Also, a HUGE thanks to Iwata-Medea, Inc., for their sponsorship. See you next time and good luck! features informative articles on Watercolor paints, brushes, paper, techniques, tips and products.

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...the link between you, the visual artist, and the manufacturer of art materials.
ARTtalk is a monthly eight-page newsletter available FREE-OF-CHARGE from Participating Art Material Retailers in the U.S., Canada and Bermuda. Each month you'll find informative articles that deal with a variety of subjects such as painting, printmaking, sculpture, ceramics, arts and crafts, and more. These explain various techniques--how to work and paint with watercolor, oils, or acrylics; use pastels or pen and ink, airbrush, and more. You'll find information on art history, current events and art world news, as well as an occasional "Kids' Korner." Subjects vary and change each month.

Airbrush Workshops

The Gallery at the Square in Beacon, New York, (60 miles north of New York City) will present workshops in airbrush technique on Saturday, August 10th.

10am - 1pm
Basic Airbrush Techniques – Black and White
3-Hour Hands-On Workshop

Intermediate Airbrush Techniques – Working in Color
3-Hour Hands-On Workshop

The fee includes the use of equipment and all class materials. Instructor is Robert Paschal, MFA. Robert has taught these classes internationally and is the author of Airbrushing for Fine and Commercial Artists and co-author with Robert Anderson of The Art of the Dot—Advanced Airbrush Techniques. He has received the Vargas Award and American Artist magazine’s Art Masters Award for Airbrush Teacher.

Class size is limited and pre-registration is required, so don’t delay. For further information, go to

If you’ve always wanted to learn how to airbrush, here’s your opportunity!